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Bobonaro is located on the western part of the country, and borders Indonesia to the west, Liquiçá district to the north, Covalima and Ainaro districts to the south. It has a population of 92,049 inhabitants (Census 2010) and an area of 1,368 km2.

The capital of Bobonaro is Maliana, 149 km southwest of Dili, the national capital.

This district is situated at a height of between 0 and 1934 metres above sea level, spread from low lying plateaus on the coast to the tallest peak, Mount Tapo at 1,934 metre. In general, Bobonaro district is divided between 3 plateau areas:

Low Lying Plains:

Located in the northwest area where there are desert and rice fields starting from Marobo as well as plains along the length of the Nunura River.

Low Mountain Plateau:

In the north of the west section, 1000 metres above sea level.

Upland Plateau:

In the east and south reaching 1500 metres above sea level.